Prolactin is the vital hormone that is produced by the lactotroph cells. The cells are located in the pituitary gland and feature an ability to pump out the hormone in the amounts, required by the organism. The cells produce as much hormone as they can, up to the time some inhibitory factor occurs and ceases the process. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one of the inevitable inhibitors that prevent excess prolactin production. Considering both men and women, abnormal prolactin levels can be dangerous, launching a range of unwanted reactions. First of all, prolactinoma can serve the cause of erectile dysfunction appearance, but it can also lead to lactation from the nipple. The third, and probably the most dangerous consequence of advanced prolactin production is infertility.
As for other influences, the hormone promotes on the organism, it is vital to mention the immune system, metabolic, behavior and reproductive functions it interferes with. While men suffer from negative impacts of excess prolactin more often, women are not less dependent on the hormone. There are several periods in female life when the advancement of prolactin level is needed, including pregnancy and lactation. However, abnormal prolactin ranges can trigger unwanted reactions and serious health disorders.
On average, women with increased prolactin level report such complications as unwanted milk production and flow, breast swelling, infertility, abnormal menstruation cycle and others. Infertility is among the most obvious disorders since enhanced prolactin ranges act similar to contraceptive, preventing pregnancy. The condition, which usually develops is known as amenorrhea, which is characterized by the lack of menstrual periods for several months. Interfering with the secretion of GnRH, prolactin contributes to the release of Luteinizing hormone and Follicle-stimulating hormone, which leads to disruption of the menstrual cycle. Moreover, these two hormones, which are imbalanced by advanced prolactin concentration, affect progesterone and estrogen levels, which are exceptionally inevitable for proper female organism functioning.